True Science
Science: "to know"
 

"Any change in the DNA sequence is called a mutation."  Prentice Hall Biology 2006, p. 301

When a cell divides, it makes a copy of its DNA — and sometimes the copy is not quite perfect. That small difference from the original DNA sequence is a mutation.


Mutations can also be caused by exposure to specific chemicals or radiation. These agents cause the DNA to break down.


The Second Law of Thermodynamics states: 

All matter and energy goes from a state of complexity and useful energy to a state of less complexity and less useful energy for doing work. The entropy of the entire universe always increases.


Isaac Asimov in the Smithsonian Institute Journal, June 1970, p. 6 stated: “Another way of stating the second law then is: ‘The universe is constantly getting more disorderly!’ Viewed that way, we can see the second law all about us. We have to work hard to straighten a room, but left to itself it becomes a mess again very quickly and very easily. Even if we never enter it, it becomes dusty and musty. How difficult to maintain houses, and machinery, and our bodies in perfect working order: how easy to let them deteriorate. In fact, all we have to do is nothing, and everything deteriorates, collapses, breaks down, wears out, all by itself … and that is what the second law is all about.” 


Observation:
The Second Law of Thermodynamics

What are the results of mutations over a long period of time?

Facts About Mutations

1. Mutations are very rare. 
"The cell processes that copy genetic material and pass it from one generation to the next are usually accurate." Prentice Hall Biology -2006, Pg. 301

2. Most mutations are either harmful or neutral. "Genetic mutations are spontaneous, chance changes, which are rarely beneficial, and more often have no effect, or a deleterious one."  Luigi Cavalli-Sforza, head of the international Human Genome Diversity Project, (Genes, Peoples, and Languages, p. 176).

3. Beneficial mutations are extremely rare.
"In some rarer cases, a gene mutation may have positive effects.  An organism may receive a mutation that makes it faster or stronger; such a mutation may help an organism - and its offspring - better survive in its environment.

4. Some mutations occur during DNA replication.
"Some mutations seem to just happen, perhaps as a mistake in base pairing during DNA replication."  Prentice Hall Biology - 2006, Pg. 301 

5. Some mutations are caused by factors in the environment. 
Mutagens include: radiation, harmful chemicals, or high temperatures.  "Forms of radiation, such as X rays, cosmic rays, ultraviolet light, and nuclear radiation, are dangerous mutagens because the energy they contain can damage or break apart DNA." Prentice Hall Biology - 2006, Pg. 301

6. Mutations usually involve the loss of some function and generally result in the deterioration of the creature's overall health.

For instance, sickle-cell anemia is considered a beneficial mutation because it protects many Africans against malaria, yet sickle-cell anemia itself is a very serious disease.

Mutations are well known to cause diseases like cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, inherited osteoporosis and literally more than 1000 others.

http://esciencenews.com/articles/2012/11/29/most.harmful.mutations.people.arose.past.5000.10000.years 


7. Mutations cause a net loss of genetic information over time, not a net gain.

Cornell University geneticist John Sanford summarized the problem: "Therefore, the very strong predominance of deleterious mutations in this box [of near-neutrals] absolutely guarantees net loss of information."  Sanford, J. C. 2005. Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome. Lima, NY: Ivan Press, 24.

Most of the mutations in our DNA are only 5,000-10,000 years old, according to a study by the Exome Sequencing Project at the National Institutes of Health. That's a good thing, then, because a recent article in the American Journal of Human Genetics says we're all rife with genetic mistakes, and it's hard to find any that have benefited us at all. We might not have been able to handle many more years of DNA deterioration.

Computational Evolution Experiments Reveal a Net Loss of Genetic Information Despite Selection http://marksmannet.com/RobertMarks/REPRINTS/BINP/9789814508728_0014.pdf

Do mutations add genetic information?

"But in all the reading I've done in the life-sciences literature, I've never found a mutation that added information.  All point mutations that have been studied on the molecular level turn out to reduce the genetic information and not increase it."  Dr. Lee Spetner (Ph.D. Physics - MIT, taught information and communications at Johns Hopkins University), Not By Chance, 1997, pp. 131, 138 


"We see the apparent inability of mutations truly to contribute to the origin of new structures. The theory of gene duplication in its present form is unable to account for the origin of new genetic information - a must for any theory of evolutionary mechanism."  Ray Bohlin, (Ph.D. in molecular and cell biology), Creation, Evolution, and Modern Science, 2000, p. 41.


8. There are extremely complex mechanisms in place that prevent change.  

"Much like a book editor, enzymes proofread the DNA and replace incorrect nucleotides with correct nucleotides." Prentice Hall Biology - 2006, p. 301 


"In spite of these mechanisms, however, changes in the DNA occasionally do occur."  Prentice Hall Biology - 2006, Pg. 301

9. Harmful mutations play an important role in the extinction of a species. 
DNA
is constantly subject to mutations, accidental changes in its code. Mutations can lead to missing or malformed proteins, and that can lead to disease.  

Natural Selection

Natural selection is the process by which individual organisms with favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce.

Facts About Natural Selection

1. Natural selection can only select what random mutations create, or already exist.

2.  Natural selection has no consciousness, intelligence, foresight or creative capability.

"Natural selection can act only on those biologic properties that already exist; it cannot create properties in order to meet adaptational needs." Parasitology, 6th ed. Lea & Febiger, p. 516.

3. Natural selection does not promote speciation.

"Natural selection may have a stabilizing effect, but it does not promote speciation.  It is not a creative force as many people have suggested." Daniel Brooks "A downward Slope to Greater Diversity," Science, Vol. 217, 24 September 1982, p. 1240

Based on the information gathered concerning mutations and natural selection; I would hypothesize that mutational change results in the net loss of genetic information over time, and leads to the extinction of species, and disease.

I would predict that mutational change most often leads to the extinction of species and not the arrival of new ones.

Look to see if any new kinds of life forms can be observed in different stages of transition from one life form into completely new ones.

Many mechanisms prevent change in our DNA. 

In spite of this, occasionally, a change takes place, but it is rare.  In spite of the repair mechanisms, in spite of the rarity of mutational changes, in a very, very, rare occasion, a change might be helpful.  How many harmful mutations will accumulate before enough beneficial mutations do, to actually improve a life form? Will the life form go extinct before it gets a chance to improve? 

 

The more mutations you get in a population group, it would seem, the less likely it is to survive. 

Mutations are usually a series of information losing processes.  Will this process allow life to go from simple to complex?  Should we look for another explanation? 

Much of the clip art on this site is courtesy of Phillip Martin.

http://www.phillipmartin.com/

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